Monthly Archives: July 2014

“The Cradle of Human Kind” opens at the Museo de la Evolución Humana

After the great success of the exhibition “The Cradle of Human Kind” during the months it has been open at the Museo Arqueológico Regional, it is time for it to arrive at the “Museo de la Evolución Humana” in Burgos. Besides making it available for the general public (admission is free, by the way), this will also be an excellent opportunity for all attendants to the upcoming UISPP congress to see it!

despiece jirafa peninj-baja

For anyone interested in ordering copies of the companion books to this exhibition, remember that you can get them from the Wild World Visuals store, here:

Denizens of Madrid’s Miocene Woods: The “Dog-Bears”

The so-called dog-bears, or hemicyonines were actually much closer to bears than to dogs; in fact, most specialists classify them as just a subfamily Hemicyoninae within the bear family or Ursidae, although there have been proposals to grant family status to the group, as Hemicyonidae.
But in spite of their close affinity with modern bears, these animals would have looked quite un-bear like to a modern observer, because of their body porportions and gait. One good example of this would be Hemicyon sansaniensis, a species typical of the group and widespread in the Miocene of Western Europe, including the Madrid region.
Hemicyon sansaniensis had the body mass of a small brown bear, but it differed from any bear in having a longer back and longer metapodials (foot-bones), which were straight and parallel and indicate a digitigrade posture. Such body proportions are actually more similar to those of a big cat, and it is likely that Hemicyon would stalk its prey and hunt actively, a bit a like a big cat.

Life reconstruction of Hemicyon sansaniensis

But the dentition of Hemicyon was certainly not cat-like. It was more adapted to processing meat than that of “normal” bears, but it was also fit for dealing with other types of food, including vegetable matter.
Like the bear-dogs of the family Amphicyonidae, these animals are good examples of the evolution of caniform carnivorans during the Miocene, when they filled rather broad niches as hunters, scavengers and omnivores. But such niches would be compromised by the arrival of the true big cats, and especially of the sabertooths, which soon became the dominant hunters of large prey and established new rules for the Miocene large carnivore guild.

Entrevista a Mauricio Antón en Ciencia al Cubo

Este domingo 20 de Julio a las 11:30, América Valenzuela entrevista a Mauricio Antón en el programa “Ciencia al Cubo”, de Radio Nacional.
Podéis escuchar el programa en directo a través de la página web del programa, aquí:

En la misma web se colgará el podcast encuanto esté disponible.
¡No os lo perdáis!

Entrevista RNE ciencia al Cubo

Denizens of Madrid’s Miocene woods: the Bear-Dogs

For most of the early and midlle Miocene, cat-like carnivorans had to play a subordinate role in the predator guild of Madrid’s woodlands and prairies. The dominant hunters and scavengers in those ecosystems belonged to the Caniformia (which is the “dog half” of the order Carnivora), and they included two groups known with the confusing popular names of “Bear-Dogs” and “Dog-Bears”. The “Dog-Bears” or hemicyonines, were close relatives of today’s bears, and will be discussed in a different post.
The “Bear-Dogs” or Amphicyonids, were neither dogs nor bears, but a separate family distantly related to both. Most of them had a rather unspecialized dentition with a nearly complete set of premolars and molars, resembling in some ways the dentition of dogs, and suggesting a similarly varied diet. But their skeleton was not especially dog-like in most cases, and instead it resembled a mixture between a bear and a big cat in terms of body proportions and locomotor adaptations.
One of the most common and well-known members of this family was Amphicyon major, an animal similar in size to a modern brown bear and whose remains are found in several fossil sites in Madrid. Well adapted to a life as an active hunter, scavenger and omnivore, it would keep the modest cats of the time (the largest of which was leopard-sized) easily at bay.

Here is a reconstruction of Amphicyon major in the middle Miocene environments of Casa de Campo, an area that today is covered with mediterranean bush and woodland, but which during the Aragonian was part of a savannah-like floodplain with gallery woods near water. These two individuals are disputing a carcass of Triceromeryx.
amphicyon Casa de Campo

Remembering Alan Turner

Alan Turner was so much more than a collaborator to me. For two decades, he was my informal paleontology teacher, my mentor, creative partner and close friend. Together we produced several books and many scientific papers, but we also shared family vacations and flamenco evenings. Losing him over two years ago was such a shock that it actually didn’t seem real. In many ways, he is still far more real, for some of us, than his absence. We have his work, and a whole lot of great memories that feel today as fresh as ever.

To celebrate Alan’s work, Quaternary Science Reviews has now published a tribute volume including an introduction, an obituary and an impressive collection of scientific papers. Courtesy of Elsevier, for the next 50 days you can access the obituary by following this link:

Alan Turner in Madrid, summer of 2009

Denizens of Madrid’s Miocene woods: the Mastodons

One of the most important faunal events during the early Miocene of Europe was the arrival of the first proboscideans, or elephant relatives, some 19 million years ago. Those wonderful beasts left their African home when land bridges allowed, and spread throughout Eurasia, eventually to cross the Bering bridge into North America. Wherever they arrived, they did not simply become a part of the landscape: they changed it, acting on the vegetation like a sort of biological bulldozers that contributed to the spread of grassy patches and to keep the forests at bay.

Skull and reconstructed head of the mastodon Gomphotherium angustidens, based on fossils from sites in central Spain
Gomphotherium Head low res

Those early proboscideans, popularly known as mastodons, were rather different from our modern elephants. Gomphotherium, the most widespread genus from the early and middle Miocene, is a good example of the classic mastodon. Short-legged and robust, it had a body mass comparable to that of an Asian elephant, but was considerably less tall at the shoulders. Like most proboscidean species of the Miocene, it had four tusks, one pair on the maxilla and another one at the end of the elongated mandible, giving the animal a bizarre (to our eyes) appearance. And its cheek teeth had a more simple pattern, adapted to process softer vegetation than in the case of true elephants, mostly leaves and twigs -no grass.

Here is a life reconstruction of Gomphotherium in its environment
gomphotherium-paisaje baja watermark

Ever since then and until the end of the Pleistocene ( a “mere” 10,000 years ago), the landscapes of Eurasia and North America were never without proboscideans of one kind or another, often with more than one species coexisting at the same time. For that reason, African and Indian wilderness offer important references to imagine how the vegetation of prehistoric Eurasia and North America would have been influenced by the action of such phenomenal creatures.

Reconstructing sabertooths… How is it done?

In “Sabertooth” I have included a few notes about the reconstruction methods that I used for preparing the illustrations of the book. But there was only so much I could pack into a section of a chapter of a book which already covers such a range of sabertooth-related topics.


So if you are REALLY curious about the whole process of reconstruction, from fossil site to finished illustration, I suggest that you download the video “Bringing the Sabertooths Back to Life”.

Get it now from Wild World Visuals Store:

Watch a clip from the film: