While preparing a complex paleo-scene with several animals in their environments, I draw line sketches by the dozen, many of them too rough to show even here. But once the anatomy of the animals and the composition have been solved, the matter of color needs to be dealt with. Some times from the very beginning you have a rather definite idea of the palette you want to use, while in other occasions your concept is more defined regarding shapes than color or atmosphere.
One case where I had a concrete idea from the start was the scene with a herd of indricotheres of the genus Paraceratherium which I painted for the National Geographic Book of Prehistoric Mammals.
I wanted to play with the sober contrast between the grey animals and the orange-colored dry grass, and I wanted to use light grey dust to intermix both elements. The idea seemed clear and simple enough, but for this project I had such tight deadlines that I could hardly leave anything to improvisation. In such cases, “more is less”: a little more time invested in a preliminary color sketch is less time wasted later on in changing your mind about color schemes.
So, based on my preliminary pencil drawing I did a very rough color sketch in oils, only some 20 cm wide. As I was painting the earthy color combination I had imagined, I found it looked rather oppresive. All the colors were a bit too similar and with all that dust dominating the scene it felt clausthrophobic, as if the animals were inside a huge room rather than outdoors. So I decided to bring in the color that most directly contrasts with orange: blue. Incorporating the patch of blue sky in the right upper corner of the painting created a tension between two complementary colors and it further suggested the idea of advance, so that as the herd moves towards the right side of the scene the dust seems to be cornering the blue sky, but it hasn’t totally happened yet.
I solved these issues in an hour or two working on my small sketch. But if I had set to paint directly on the big canvas (shown below) and found these problems along the way, the solution would have taken much more time, a luxury I could not afford in that project.
Digital imaging came to stay a long time ago, and some times it can become a nightmare for artists with traditional training like myself. After many years painting digitally, pencil and paper are still my tools of choice when it comes to sketching, and the digital tablet and pen sometimes feel like ill-fitting gloves. And you know what they say about a cat in gloves…
That said, in many ways digital imaging has provided paleoartists with possibilities that seemed just dreams some years ago. For me, being able to handle an accurate 3D model of a fossil skull is incredibly convenient when it comes to make a faithful reconstruction of the head of an extinct animal.
In a recent book cover commission for Japanese publisher Gakken, I had to illustrate a gaping Smilodon facing the viewer, and it was imperative that the proportions were totally accurate. So I used a digital 3D model of the skull of Smilodon and rotated it in the screen until I got the right pose and angle, then I made a screen capture and used it as a template to anchor my drawing of the living head.
The painting was done digitally, and the flexibility of working in layers was a welcome advantage when it came to make minor adjustments to fit the requirements of the cover layout. Like it or not, most of us scientific artists are now plugged in to the digital world, so we should better look at the bright side of -virtual- things!
While preparing the illustrations for the “National Geographic Book of Prehistoric Mammals” with Alan Turner we agreed that we needed a double page spread image showing the sabertooth cat Smilodon populator in pursuit of its prey.
From that central image I ellaborated on the concept of a mixed herd of grazers including several macrauchenias an some South American horses. I played with the impression of a diversity of animals exploding in different directions as their peaceful grazing was interrupted by the predators.
But looking at the sketch I felt I had somehow overdone it, and I decided more simplicity was needed.
So, off went the horses (although one of them “mutated” into a Macrauchenia…), and the remaining elements got spread out a bit to fill the double-page spread format. Now the animals had more room to breath and the whole thing was more relaxing to look at. This third sketch went to the canvas with hardly any modification.
Looking at the final painting and the sketches all these years after, I get the impression that the more “crowded” alternative could have worked as well after all, if only I had had more time… but the practical fact was that to paint that version in oils would have been too time-consuming given the tight deadlines for the whole book project!
Sometimes you cannot separate too clearly the creative needs from the more mundane circumstances of your work, but often, in spite of the frustrations, the results improve thanks to those limitations… often, but not always, and not neccessarily!
In my previous post I introduced the concept of “ultra-sketch” and I recalled how, several years ago, I had to do one such hyper-detailed pencil version of my reconstruction of the Koobi Fora environment for the Altamira museum.
Now here is another piece I did for the same project: an Ice Age landscape in the Cantabrian region with some tipical late Pleistocene species such as woolly mammoth, woolly rhino, reindeer, horse and cave lion, all abundantly depicted in the Cave Art of northern Spain and France.
Once again the painting was so complex that I was in serious danger of not finishing it in time for the exhibition opening, so I was extra careful to make the preliminary sketch as clean and detailed as possible so it could take the place of the finished painting -for some time.
This was a tricky scene to draw because snow is not the most pencil-friendly material, in fact it is mostly defined by the way other elements, such as vegetation or the animals, interact with it and each item has to be painstakingly outlined against the white.
In the finished oil painting I changed the disposition of a few snow patches and shrubs, but otherwise I respected the sketch almost exactly, not least to avoid contradictions with a version that Museum viewers might already become familiar with!
Back in the days when I used to do all my prehistoric scenes in oils, it was of the essence that my sketches were quite precise and detailed, because once you start painting with the brush on the canvas, there is little room for improvisation. Of course you can change your mind and hide the old dry paint under fresh layers of oils but the process is time-consuming to say the least -for me it was usually pure agony to incorporate any substantial changes to an ongoing oil painting.
Painstakingly detailed sketches were created by classic masters of paleoart, especially by Rudolph Zallinger whose scale color sketches for the Yale Peabody Museum murals were so detailed that Time magazine published them as if they were finished illustrations in the form of large, several-pages-wide folds. Many of us grew believing that they were the finished museum murals.
I have created especially accurate pencil sketches not only to define all the details -and thus pave the way for the process of painting- but also because in some occasions I didn’t expect to get there to the exhibition opening deadline, and the exhibits designers needed something to show in the meantime.
That was the case with a series of large oil paintings I did several years ago for the Altamira Museum in Northern Spain. One of them was a scene set in the early Pleistocene at Koobi Fora in Northern Kenya. My pencil sketch was more detailed than I would normally do, so it could take the place of the color version until the latter was finally completed.
Here is the detailed pencil sketch…
One of the most intricate illustrations I have done recently is not about extinct species (not yet at least!). It shows the diversity of primates at the Tai Forest Reserve in Ivory Coast, West Africa. There are 8 different species of monkeys in that forest and, as scientists have found after years of field research, all of them are regular prey for the most impressive raptor in the area: the African crowned eagle. There are also 3 species of strepsirhine primates there (shown in the lower left corner), but their nocturnal habits keep them off the eagle´s menu.
Hominids (humans and chimpanzees) live in in Tai forest as well but they are generally not attacked by the raptors. In the distant past, however, our own hominid ancestors were indeed part of the eagles’ diet, as shown by the marks in the skull of the famous Taung child, a young individual of Australopithecus africanus described as a new species by Raymond Dart back in the 1920s. It justly became one of the most important early findings in the study of human evolution, but the fact that it had fallen prey to an eagle would not be discovered until much later. In 1995 Ron Clarke and Lee Berger suggested that the accumulation of primate bones at the site of Taung could have been the result of the raptor’s activity, and the in 2006 Berger published a study of damage to the bone which revealed the bird’s talon marks on the hapless child’s skull.
I drew this impression of the Taung child’s sad end for Alan Turner’s and my book “Evolving Eden” in 2004. A couple of years later, Berger’s study of the marks in the child’s skull would confirm the raptor’s role in its death.
Leafing through folders with old drawings I found a few rough sketches for two paintings I intended to include in “The Big Cats and their Fossil Relatives” (1997). Back in those days photo references were much harder to come by and I had to relay more heavily on my clay models, which I set in the pose of the planned painting and put under a lamp to mimic the desired lighting conditions.
During the late 1980s documentary viewers around the world were awed at the athletic feats of the tigers of Ranthambore, especially the formidable male nicknamed “Genghis”, who used to charge through the shallow water in pursuit of sambar deer. It was only natural that I wished to paint a similar scene with a different cast of characters, in particular the agile, tiger-sized sabertooth Machairodus catocopis and the strange artiodactyl Procranioceras, both from the late Miocene of North America.
In my earliest sketches for this scene I showed a different prey, Syntethoceras, which looked conveniently bizarre, but then I found that it apparently did not coexist with M. catocopis in the same fossil sites.
Another sensation for wildlife documentary lovers back in the 1980s was the revelation of the intimate life of the white wolves of Ellesmere island, then filmed and photographed for the first time. Those predators chased their prey, from hares to musk oxen, in the barren expanses of the high Arctic, and in my mind the connection was made with the lightly built Beringian sabertooths of the genus Homotherium. Paleontologist Bjorn Kurtén had hypothesized that those animals would be black to match the coat color of their main prey, the woolly mammoth, but I found at least as likely that they would be white to match the winter color of their environment, just like the arctic wolves.
So I set to paint a scene with white predator and white prey inspired in those breathtaking Ellesmere images. I wanted to show my subjects under the dramatic light of the low arctic sun, and once again I had to model my creatures in clay and light them. The horns of the Dall ram were especially complex objects and I would have been at a loss to paint them without the figurine.
In this case the final painting did find its way to “The Big Cats”!.
In the late Eocene, some 50 million years ago, the area of the Paris basin was occupied by extensive tropical forests with an abundant, exotic mammalian fauna. Many species from that epoch were described by pioneering paleontologist Georges Cuvier, including Adapis, a member of the early primate family Adapidae. This small animal, weighting about 1 Kg, was an agile if relatively slow climber that sought fruits and tender leaves in the green canopy.
But the peak of primate activity in the Eocene forests of the Paris basin probably took place during the night. When the adapids went to sleep with their bellies full of vegetable food, faster primates, members of the family Omomyidae, emerged from their resting places in search of a diversity of food, including living prey. Like modern tarsiers and galagos, they had short muzzles, huge forward-facing eyes, and long hindlimbs well adapted to leaping from branch to branch in pursuit of insects and other small creatures.
Here is my reconstruction of 3 species of nocturnal primates form the Paris basin. From left to right: Necrolemur, Peudoloris and Microchoerus.
I prepared these reconstructions as part of a collection of illustrations for C.S. Larsen’s masterly textbook “Our Origins”, published by Norton and now in its successful fourth edition. Check it on Amazon:
Spring has come and it is time to begin our preparations for this year’s edition of “Drawing the Big Cats”! It may seem like there is a lot of time left until late August, but a trip like this requires quite some planning ahead. After four editions of this amazing safari, there are countless memories of incredible encounters with the wildlife of Northern Botswana, but our 2015 trip stands as one of the most memorable, if nothing else because we could see the fishing leopard of Savuti in action! Here are some impressions from our feline encounters of that year:
If you want to learn more about this incredible trip contact Elephant Trails safaris at: firstname.lastname@example.org
And if you want to picture yourself there, here is a summary of the itinerary to help boost your imagination:
DRAWING THE BIG CATS SAFARI: ITINERARY.
This is an overland safari where we spend all our time in the remote wilderness of Botswana. During the game drives we will concentrate on watching the wildlife, and making photographs or videos is the priority especially during our encounters with the big cats which are usally brief and always unpredictable. However, on particular occasions we will be able to use our sketchbook and pencil for some live sketching. It will be during the lunch stop or back at camp that we will have our drawing classes and learn about the structure, shape and action of the felines and how to materialise it in our sketches. On some evenings we will also have presentations about big cat evolution, behaviour and adaptations, all of which will enrich our experience of the real animals in the wild.
Day 1. Sedia Hotel – Maun
Arrive in Maun, the safari capital of Botswana, and overnight in the Sedia Hotel on a dinner, bed and breakfast basis. We take a scenic flight over the Oklavango Delta for a breathtaking vew of some of the wilderness that we will be visiting over the following days. For bird enthusiasts there is a chance to watch some of the most colourful local bird species up close at the hotel’s garden bird feeders.
Day 2 & 3. Xakanaxa – Moremi Game Reserve
We depart Maun and travel the 5-6 hour journey into the Moremi Game Reserve which is situated in the Okavango Delta. Here we will camp in a private campsite in the heart of the waterways of the Okavango Delta.
Day 2 takes us on a boat ride on the main channels and lagoon systems of the northern reaches of the Okavango Delta. There is a great variety of birdlife along these channels, and mammals such as the elusive otter and majestic lechwe may be seen. If we are lucky we may even see an elephant cooling off in the clear waters or catch a glimpse of the shy sitatunga.
We usually spend most of the day out so we will pack a picnic lunch to be enjoyed in a shady spot in this picturesque part of Moremi. In the evening we return to camp for warm shower and a hearty meal while listening to the sounds of the African bush at night. LDBB
Days’ 4 & 5. Khwai – Moremi Game Reserve
After enjoying our early morning breakfast and clearing our tents we start our journey to the Eastern most extremity of the Okavango Delta.
The Khwai area is rich in habitat and wildlife. The animals are attracted to the narrow ribbon of water that is the Khwai River and this provides for some spectacular wildlife viewing. This is an area where lion and leopard may be seen. There is a healthy population of plains game, including kudu, impala, giraffe and zebra.
Here we will spend our days doing game drives and also have a chance to relax and catch up with our diaries during the siesta time of the afternoon on day 5. LDBB
Days’ 6 & 7. Savuti – Chobe National Park
Today we have a 6 – 7 hour journey to Savuti- we will be travelling through wilderness area for the whole journey. This is a day that puts into perspective the sheer size of this wilderness area.
Savuti lies in an ancient lake bed that is punctuated with small rocky hills (kopjes), some of which hold ancient San rock paintings. Here we explore the Savuti marsh and river bed for the abundant wildlife of this timeless place, including its famous elephant and lion population. Wild dog are regularly seen as well as a large variety of other mammals.
Savuti is a favoured area of wildlife- photographers as well as film-makers and many well known wildlife documentaries have been filmed here.
Days 8 & 9. Chobe River Front – Chobe National Park
Today’s journey takes us out of the ancient lake bed and Kalahari basin , through the teak forests that make up the north eastern part of Botswana.
For a long part of the journey we will follow in the footsteps of famous missionary and explorer Dr David Livingstone. We pass through some villages that are recorded by him in his books about his travels. The Chobe river floodplain is undoubtedly one of the greatest wildlife areas on the continent and one is sometimes overwhelmed by the sheer numbers of animals. Here we divide our time between game drives along the river and in the forest and a boat cruise on the Chobe River which is one of the highlights of the trip. We will also have some time to do some curio shopping in the village of Kasane.
Day 10. Victoria Falls
Today we leave our camp for the last time as we are transferred to Victoria Falls.
Here we will overnight in a comfortable hotel.
We will have time to spend a few hours at the world famous “Smoke that Thunders” or in the local Batonka language “Mosi Oa Tunya”.(The entry fee is the responsibility of guest) It is one of the 7 natural wonders of the world .
There are also optional activities including white water rafting, helicopter flights or even bungee jumping. The restaurant dinner that evening is the responsibility of the guest.
The early Pleistocene of Africa was a time when modern species of large mammals coexisted with others that are no longer with us, creating an exciting mosaic of animal diversity. Sabertooth cats like Homotherium were still at large, but many of the animals they preyed upon were of modern type, from horses to antelopes. But now and then they would come across an elephant-like creature that had long become extinct in Europe and Asia: Deinotherium.
Deinotheres are classified, like elephants, in the order proboscidea, but they belonged in a family of their own, the Deinotheriidae, which probably diverged from the lineage of elephants very early on.
Deinotheres had elephant-like body proportions but their tusks emerged from the mandible rather than from the maxilla, and they curved downwards.
If deinotheres had tight societies like those of modern elephants, it would be very hard for predators to catch a young individual -hard, but not impossible. Even lions manage to snatch a young elephant every now and then in spite of the adults’ almost constant vigilance.
But once the elephantine prey was down, the advantage of the sabertooths over the lions would become evident. With their long, flattened and coarsely serrated upper canines homotheres would be able to pierce their prey’s though skin and even reach the blood vessels underneath. That would be good for the predators, who saved a lot of time, effort and risk, and merciful for the deinothere, who would die from massive blood loss in a couple of minutes. Lions hunting elephants, on the other hand, can take ages to finally kill their prey, who in some occasions is virtually and slowly eaten alive. Bloody as the sabertooth kill was, it would be, in a way, much cleaner than that of its modern relatives, at least when it came to thick-skinned prey.